England was late to join the movement to establish a colonial empire. Unlike French and Spanish settlements, England’s first permeant settlements in Jamestown (1607) and Plymouth (1620) were barely habitable, built of wood that did not survive for long. Early English forts were merely wooden stockades, suitable to protect against Indians, but not European adversaries. Nonetheless, the English persevered and eventually prospered as colonists pursued enterprise in fishing, forest products (boatbuilding) and agriculture. Today, New England retains a pastoral colonial-style charm, especially along the Maine and New Hampshire coastlines.